China's stone resources

First, the production status

Marble mining and processing in the world has a long history, five or six thousand years continued unabated, in ancient China, Egypt, Greece, Italy ... ... have a glorious past. Marble is the world's rich resources, distribution of a wide range of minerals. With the development of modern construction, it is radiant, many countries have attached great importance to the development of marble resources to promote the rapid development of stone industry, stone industry to form a complete range of modern industrial branches. World stone production in 1996 reached 4900 million t, nearly 5-year average annual growth rate of 9.7%, which yields about 2600 marble million t. Major producing countries: Italy, Portugal, Spain, Greece, Turkey, the Philippines, India, Germany, the United States, France, Brazil, China, Belgium and other countries. Industrial production is facing stones after the establishment of new China are developing. 50 years of this century in order to ensure the needs of the Top Ten Construction Beijing, in the transformation of the old stone foundation on the state enterprises in Beijing, Tianjin, Hangzhou, Shanghai, Shenyang, Qingdao and expansion of a number of marble factory, but the scale is very small, production methods very backward. In the 80s of this century stone industry has entered a period of rapid development. China's production of decorative marble plates 430 000 1981 m2, 1985, reaching 1.4 million m2, 1990 reached 705m2, 1995 reached 5 500m2, 15-year production growth between the marble plate 128 times. Marble mining and processing industry has a higher rate still evolving. (A) of the marble blocks (ore) production. Marble mining is widely distributed in China, compared to other mineral mining technology relatively simple, it was the marble mining industry in various forms, there are universal, collective, private, joint venture, sole proprietorship, joint venture and other forms of ownership enterprises. According to 1996 statistics, there are a certain scale of 1 900 over the marble mining companies, which collectively, about 1 500 private enterprises, ownership of enterprises above county level with more than 400, larger than about 20 foreign-funded enterprises. More than 90,000 employees, more than 60 billion yuan of industrial output value. Exploration and production technology in China mine also presented in various forms, a small number of mines using advanced equipment and a high degree of process automation, high efficiency, the production of block-degree blocks, the shape of rules, production technology and stone industries developed the same; part of the larger marble mining mainly uses domestic equipment, production technology and practical, high efficiency, the production of marble blocks are mostly middle-block degrees, regular shape; most of the marble mine by hand using simple equipment, low cost mining operations, small investment, but the mining of marble blocks block is small and neat appearance is no guarantee, mining recovery rate lower, more serious waste of resources. China has discovered 400 varieties of marble, are still around but without the exploitation of geological work and has many varieties of products supplied to the market, according to "stone", China's actual production of marble has more than 640 varieties, especially in Anhui , Henan, Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, the four provinces of product are more than 50 to 60. However, most varieties of small batch supply.Annual production of marble blocks are not as relevant Chinese departments for statistics over the years, there is no official data. From the China Stone Materials Industry Association, all kinds of products related to data and 1996 annual production of marble, blocks export, blocks of inventory turnover, etc., estimated that in 1996 about 1.1 million production of marble blocks m3.(B) types of marble products. China marble a wide range of applications, species type complex. From the application of the points can be roughly divided into: building materials, decorative arts, life and burial supplies equipment class type. Building materials production the largest and most popular marble blocks consume about 80% of production. One smooth marble plates, rough marble board and for building columns, column bases, steps, bridge structures, monuments, as the main product. Decorative arts including stone, marble, painted screen; life categories including appliances, marble furniture, stationery, lamps, cigarette lighters; burial goods category includes all kinds of tombstones, stone pagodas, stone buildings, urns and so on. Consumption of these three classes of about 20% of production of marble blocks, including a variety of marble carving, stone materials as the main product. China's exports of goods classified as marble: marble blocks and monument material, means the recovery directly from the mine, not further processed wool; marble building boards and steles, that after cutting or grinding marble polishing products; marble stone product, after carved building components, etc.; marble products, refer to a variety of shaped products, such as polishing cylinder, arc, etc.; marble tiles, boxes and the like, refer to the marble block six face lesser degree of institutional products. In this five export marble products, marble, and monumental building board as the main export product, accounting for the marble for 40% of total exports. (C) Production of marble products. According to 1996 statistics, a certain scale marble processing enterprises 3200 more than about 10 billion yuan of industrial output, employing about 14 people. Have formed an unprecedented scale. From the marble business structure, in 3 more than 200 processing enterprises, the independent accounting enterprises above county level with 1100, more than 100 joint ventures and wholly owned enterprises; from the production scale, production capacity of 100 000 m2 / a above Only a dozen companies, 90% of the company production capacity of 10 000 m2 / a following, most of the production scale was small. Marble processing enterprises from the equipment perspective, about 90% of enterprises use more backward and handheld disc Stone Saw Mill, only the width of the 400mm production following specifications board, sheet thickness is 20mm, the precision and low gloss. 10% of businesses use large diamond frame saw or circular saw with long continuous large-scale mill can produce more than the width of the large size in 600mm plates. A few companies use highly automated heavy-duty diamond frame saw and automatic continuous polishing machine polishing composition of the automated production line can produce more than the width 1 500mm marble slabs; that some companies use two-way cut by a grinding machine with an automatic continuous ray machines, multi-pronged machine, chamfering machine grinding the composition of automatic production lines, production of marble plate thickness of 10mm, the product of precision and have a high gloss. China marble tile marble processing industry production capacity of about 8 0,000,000 m2 / a, the industry's highest annual output of 5 5 million m2, 1996 年 marble processing enterprises sheet production by 5 to 1.09 million m2. Marble production from China to see, just below Italy, the world's No. 2, but the majority of Chinese marble small business backward way of producing the product does not meet international quality requirements are usually difficult to enter the international market. Therefore, if the qualified products with the production measure, China marble tile production was lower than Italy, Spain, Portugal and Greece, around the world No. 5. Figure 4.25.4 marble manufacturers in China Distribution.




Second, production layout

At present, China marble mining and processing industries throughout the 29 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. Two districts of East China and South Africa is the main producing areas in the two areas of marble production accounts for more than 70% of the country. In East China, Shandong Peninsula has become the most important production base of marble, marble mines existing in 37, produced more than 30 varieties of marble, more well-known varieties of "Snow White", "Laiyang Green", "Crystal White "and so on. Marble blocks an annual capacity of 100 000 m3. Enterprise 1 400 existing stone more than a certain production scale processing enterprises have more than 60 sheets, marble annual output has reached 1 2.6 million m2. Key enterprises already have a reasonable economy of scale, such as silver Lei Laizhou Enterprise Group Corporation has three annual production capacity of more than 5 000m3 stone mines (of which a marble mine), and has an annual 120 thousand m2 of marble scale. Another example is Lei Stone Group Corporation, Qingdao China has four stone mines. The total production capacity of 22,000 m3 / a, where a marble mine annual 4 000m3, and has an annual marble the size of 100 000 m2. In addition, there is a certain scale production base for export enterprises, yield and stability of these export-oriented enterprises, high-volume, high quality, good efficiency. Stone enterprise in Jiangsu province have more than 400, production of more than 20 varieties of marble, better known as "white butter", "Red cream," "coffee", "Suzhou black", "Yang composition for black," "Snow White "and so on. Jiangsu Province has reached 4.1 million annual marble m2. Yixing is an important production base of marble, more than 100 existing enterprises, large and medium sized enterprises 6, leading enterprises in Yixing City, blocks of marble ore annually over 15 000 m3, sheet 4 to 50 000 m2. Ganyu is a new marble important place of origin, the existing business more than 80 stone. More than 600 enterprises in Zhejiang Province with stone, marble and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises 7, the province's annual output of 480,000 sheets of marble m2, producing more than 20 varieties, better known as "Hang Grey," "Cream", "white marble "," Quzhou Jade "and so on. Hangzhou, Hangzhou Marble Factory in the gray marble with rich, said annual production of 85 000 m2; Xiaoshan natural stone company export-oriented enterprises, board annual production of 130,000 m2. Processing enterprises in Anhui Province has more than 250 stone, marble annual output of more than 30 million m2, producing more than 60 varieties, more well-known varieties of the "cream", "Daoxiang Jade", "chime goes black," " Jing Chuan white "and so on. Enterprises in Jiangxi Province has more than 20 stone, marble annual output of 420,000 m2, more well-known varieties of "Jiangxi white", "white marble", "white butter", etc.. South Central marble are mainly grown in Guangdong and Guangxi, Henan and Hubei yield is higher. Guangdong province has the size of stone factories, mines and 4000, more than 60 points of marble mining in the larger mines mainly in Yunfu, Luoding, Jiaoling, even the state, Shenzhen, Britain and Germany, etc.. Province's annual output of 5.59 million marble m2. Production of more than 40 varieties of marble, better known as "Cloud Flowers", "Red Spirit", "Jiaoling white", "Shenzhen white" "Ling Red" and "Lo be black" and so on. Yunfu Stone is an important processing base in the south, the city has more than 2800 stone business, has formed a marble, granite plate processing capacity of 1 000 million m2 / a. 1 500 enterprises in Guangxi have stone more than the main marble mine located in Guilin, Zhongshan, He county, Lingchuan, Zhong Chuan, Pingxiang, de Paula, Zhao equality county. All autonomous regions reached 6.09 million annual marble m2, producing more than 20 varieties, better known as "Guilin black", "Guiping Flower", "He County White," "He counties gray" "green," " Wood yellow "and so on. Stone Henan has more than 100 enterprises, including the main distribution of marble mining village, Xichuan, town square, Nanzhao, Lingbao, Anyang, close county and other counties, the province's annual output of 930,000 sheets of marble m2, more than 60 varieties produced , representing a well-known varieties of "rosin yellow", "beige", "white marble", "Henan black", "Red Hibiscus" and so on. Hubei has more than 500 stone companies, primarily located in the marble mine through mountains, Yellowstone, Xishui, Yichang and other counties in the province marble annual production of 2.75 million m2, producing more than 40 varieties, better known as "Kam screen "," orange "," autumnal "," Mo Bi "" crystal white "," 100 Crane Jade "and so on. Hill County is important to pass stone origin of Hubei, the county marble blocks on volume of 100,000 mining m3, annual processing sheet 2 million m2. South West is also an important marble producing areas in China. A stone more than 1,300 enterprises in Sichuan Province, the main marble mine located in Baoxing, Yaan, asbestos, South River, Nantong counties in the province marble annual output 2.7 million m2, the main varieties produced more than 10, more well-known the "Shu white", "Baoxing white" and "Shu King White", "black jade Pakistan", "South River Red," "Tianquan black" and so on. Baoxing County is famous for marble producing area, the county has 48 mines, annual output of 60,000 blocks m3, with 310 processing plants, plate annual production of 2.5 million m2, the production "Shu white" world famous. Enterprises in Yunnan Province has more than 70 stone, the main marble mine located in Dali City, Kunming, Pingbian, Fugong counties in the province marble annual output 740,000 m2, which produced more than 40 varieties of marble, more well-known variety of "River Snow White", "cloud gray", "white jade", "Fugong white", "Pingbian white", "Bai Haitang", "Yunnan Beige," and so on. Mainly located in Dali, Kunming cities. In addition to the main origin of marble, the North District, Beijing Fangshan, Hebei Quyang; Northeast area in Dandong; Northwest Hanzhong and so is marble mining and processing enterprises more concentrated. Chinese marble manufacturer distribution shown in Figure 4.25.4, some marble sized enterprises in Table 4.25.12. Marble firm size: processing capacity of more than 50 000 m2 / a for large, 5 to 20 000 m2 / a for the medium, less than 20 000 m2 / a for small.





Third, supply and demand situation

Marble its own special attributes, it has long been popular as ever, and the value of a gradually increasing trend. The reason is that the natural beauty of marble with color, for thousands of years advanced materials and the art of sculpture is the ideal vectors have become people's attention and love; In addition, the marble is hard to renewable minerals, with the constant development of resources necessary drying up, the value of more noble. Although the artificial marble to the real thing, a lot of modern decorative materials with better performance than the use of marble, but they do not have the proven "natural, pure, true" material property and can not replace natural marble, especially in the areas of particularly high-level architecture . From the last 10 years, the international stone market trade situation, all kinds of marble trade in raw materials and products has been a steady growth trend, the average annual growth rate of around 10%. Marble consumption and the construction industry's development. With China's reform and opening up, construction boom, local hotels, restaurants, banks, shopping malls, playgrounds, sports facilities, new or re-decoration, especially the interior decoration, made from natural marble has become a trend. Forecast data from the look, the China Construction and Decoration in the future for a longer period of time will continue to be a high rate, in particular, tourism facilities, public buildings and other decoration GDP annual growth rate will be above 20%; business the service sector in the years to remodel rate of more than 10%; With the improvement of people's living standards, the marble has entered the home decoration. Building decoration industry will promote the demand of marble market continues to grow. (A) supply and consumption. Marble mining and processing enterprises in China was generally very small scale, many companies often change with the market demand, stop production dismount or swarm, so the market's total supply fluctuation. Marble blocks of the annual availability of about 95 ~ 2 million m3. Marble tile in the annual availability of about 4 000 to 5 0 million m2. Marble is mainly between supply and demand up to superior varieties, few, in short supply, especially the pure white marble particles shortages; Second, good variety and general fragmentation smaller blocks; third degree block of high yield varieties in general relatively poor, over-supply, sell difficulties; Fourth, small scale, low production, and many varieties of marble due to better small quantities, mixed colors, easy splicing, limitations of big sales. In short market supply and demand presents a good variety and processing of marble products with high levels of demand, the gap is relatively large; varieties generally, the low level processing of the product yield, flooding the market, the backlog was larger. Chinese marble products consumption is about 900,000 years m3, of which 90% of domestic supply, mainly middle and low product; 10 percent rely on imports, imports of the main board and the world famous marble blocks. China marble sources of supply, mainly in Shandong, Guangxi, Guangdong, Jiangsu, supply about 50% of the country, can supply large quantities; Henan, Hubei, Yunnan, Sichuan, accounting for about 30% of supply, the supply of the variety more, some varieties are high-grade marble; imported marble mainly from Italy (70% of total imports), Spain (10%), the other from Hong Kong, Taiwan, Greece, India, Singapore and other countries or regions. Marble undesignated Overall consumption more for interior decoration, while the granite is much used for outdoor decoration. Generally classified by application of marble is as follows: 8% outside the ground, the floor of 30%, 10% external wall finishes, interior finishes and 15%, 5% of the stairs, structural parts, 8%, accounting for 10 Tombstone Project %, 6% special projects, other 8%. (B) Foreign trade. China's foreign trade in stone, marble, and the growth rate of export value were lower than granite, granite is only about 6% of exports; marble in the world total exports, China accounted for only 1.7%. In China, imported stone, the marble imports accounted for 52%, about 3 times the exports of marble; in world total imports marble, China 4.1%. China Marble exports can be seen also lower in the exporting country, only ranked 12th, while imports large trade deficit was. 1. Marble exports: In 1996, China marble blocks and a variety of products export amounted to 92,000 t, up 41.5% over the previous year; exports amounted to 35.295 million U.S. dollars, up 14.9% over the previous year. 4 consecutive years of steady export growth, sustained growth rate higher than the growth rate of world trade in stone, marble exports that have a greater potential in China. However, the growth of exports was higher than the amount of growth in exports shows that exports of Chinese marble, the quality and grade to be improved. The highest proportion of exports of marble blocks, marble processing instructions have to be developed. Marble commodities in the international market prospects have been good, 1995,1996, China marble exports Table 4.25.13. In 1996, China marble exports are mainly sold to: Japan (25.6%), Hong Kong (25.4%), Korea (12.5%), United States (11.3%), Macau (6.7%), German (2.6%), Russia (1.5 %) and other countries and regions. 2. Marble imports With the development of economic construction, architectural decoration continued to improve, on the growing demand for foreign famous marble, China stone industry to promote international exchanges. In 1996 imports reached 256,000 marble t, up 60% over the previous year, total imports amounted to 7, 7.069 million U.S. dollars, up 21.5% over the previous year. Imported commodities, imports of marble 274.1% annual growth, marble, and monumental buildings such as growth plate 51.2%, 37.6% growth in marble stone products, marble blocks, and expected growth of 24.6% monument. Marble manufactures imports grew faster than the marble blocks import growth. 1995,1996 imports of China Marble Table 4.25.14. In 1996, China imported the original marble supplier countries are: Italy (67.25%), Spain (9.85%), Hong Kong (5.94%), China Taiwan (4.18%), Greece (2.77%), Singapore (2.43 %), India (1.40%), United States (1.29%) and so on.



IV Prospects

Marble has a variety of beautiful patterns, colors and beautiful textures, for thousands of years is that people cherished art of carving decorative materials and materials. Along with social progress, economic development, living standards, the quality of architectural features and grade requirements are high, the pursuit of return to nature, respect for nature and natural materials, and natural marble just to meet people's needs, irreplaceable material characteristics, its own texture of any synthetic materials, composite materials can not be placed on a par with the development of the times, the marble will double loved by the people.

Stone the world market was stable trend over the years, the marble trade in 1995 reached more than 400 million t, accounting for only 1.6% of Chinese exports, which China's resources and production advantages are not commensurate, the Chinese are fully equipped for the world Stone has more share of the market. China's domestic market demand of the marble was stable trend, particularly short supply of quality name brand marble, in large part to rely on imports. Marble imports in recent years more than 40% average annual growth rate of imports was about 3 times the export volume. Marble can be seen in foreign and domestic have a better market is conducive to China's marble industry.

China marble-rich, widely distributed, a wide variety of colors. National Marble forecast total resources up to 20 billion m3. Current proved reserves account for only 5% of total resources. Over the past 10 years because of the rapid rise of granite, marble resources generally pay little attention to the current status of proven resources and do not represent the nature of marble resources. Overall, the quantity of marble resources in no problems, not only the overall reserves of the developed area can guarantee demand for mining and in 2010, and the undeveloped area is still very wide, there are broad prospects for development.

China Marble production has entered the ranks of the world's major powers Stone. However, product grade, quality, volume, production scale, the overall technological level, economic and other aspects, with the world advanced level, there is a considerable gap with China than granite stone industry, but also a wide gap . In order for sustainable development of China's marble industry, rational use of resources, from resources to power, to power producing countries need to pay attention to the marble industry to overcome the problems.

First of all, mine construction should be strengthened. Marble natural form, the inevitable existence of color, stain, color lines and other shortcomings, but requires the application of the marble color consistency, harmony and unity. To resolve this contradiction requires a certain scale mines, so that different blocks of color difference to their bulk form, not mixed. This can be done to make the final product quality, meet the application requirements, export requirements.

Should strengthen the technological transformation, China's most marble mines still hand-mining, use of equipment behind, even the blind use of blasting method, resulting in mine destruction, waste of resources. Need support to help marble mine the direction of the mechanized mining, and only with advanced technology and equipment to a large degree of recovery blocks, shape rules, to meet the requirements of the blocks can be on the Protection and Development.

For the sustainable development of marble industry must pay attention to environmental protection. Mining, waste rock produced during processing, tailings can be comprehensive utilization for the production of crushed stone aggregate, stone rice, powder, and various fillers and so on purified recycled water can be recycled.

As long as we make full use of the advantages of China's marble industry there, and gradually overcome the problems, China has managed to become in a short period of time marble production power.

Date: 10/09/19